Plumbing Maintenance Tips

Since it is inside the walls of the house, usually homeowners don’t pay much attention to it. Still, it is responsible for the network of water and sewer pipes that deliver hot and cold water to the house and eliminates its waste on demand. It is the plumbing system and it needs regular attention. Regular maintenance will not only prevent leaks and prolong its life, it will avoid costly repairs. Here are some tips on how to care for the pipes in your house.

Get the tank pumped out every three to five years if you have a septic system. If you have municipal sewers, snake your main sewage cleanout. The process will remove tree roots that inevitably work their way into these pipes—leading to messy sewage backups. You may hire a plumber to do this every few years.

2. Avoid chemical drain-clearing products

The most common home plumbing problem is clogged drains. Commonly homeowners buy chemicals to clear them, not knowing that these products don’t remove the entire clog, so the problem is likely to recur. Therefore, chemicals will be used repeatedly and as a result they can actually erode cast-iron drainpipes.  Every use, they’ll eat away at the pipes a little more and soon, pipes are going to get leaks. Consequently, chemicals do more harm than good.

A better solution is to completely remove the chunk of hair or grease that’s plugging the line using a snake. You can always hire a plumber to snake the drain or try doing it yourself.

Clogs aren’t just troubles, plug-ups are too. Try to avoid them by watching what goes down your drains. You can do so if you keep food scraps out of kitchen drains, hair out of bathroom drains, and anything but sewage and toilet paper out of toilets. Added pressure on your wastepipes is caused by backed-up water puts. As a consequence the force stresses them and shortens their lifespan.

Some useful tips to keep your drains clear are:

Install screens over drains in showers and tubs.

Pull out what hair you can every few weeks to prevent buildups.

Scrape food into the trash before doing dishes, even if you have a disposal.

Never put liquid grease down the drain; pour it into a sealable container to put in the garbage after it cools.

4. Reduce the pressure

Since high water pressure makes the pipe joints, faucets, and appliance valves work harder, it can drastically reduce the life of the plumbing. Also it stresses the pipes, increasing the likelihood of a leak.

To measure the water pressure use a hose bib gauge. All you need is to attach it to an outside spigot and open the line. If the pressure registered is between 40 and 85 psi, consider it normal. If it’s above that range, you need a pressure reducer valve installed. You can do it yourself or hire a plumber.  A low-flow showerhead only affects the amount of water coming out of the showerhead itself; this supply won’t affect pressure in the pipes, so it will not help in the main problem.  

Hard water, water with a high mineral contentusually magnesium or calcium, build up inside the pipes and restrict flow, increasing the pressure. Also they can corrode joints and fittings. As a consequence, it can shorten your plumbing’s lifespan. Anything over 140 parts per million is considered hard water. A telltale sign of hard water is a white buildup on showerheads and faucets.

Installing a water softener is the only effective way to deal with hard water. You will need a plumber to install a traditional, sodium-based softener. Most use sodium to counteract the minerals in your water, but new electronic softeners use electromagnetic pulses to dissolve minerals, and have the advantage of not adding sodium to your water.

Advantages are not only on pipes since it will reduce stress that can occur when those particles clog faucet filters. It will also give cleaner drinking water by removing particulates and chlorine.

Other ways to avoid trouble

• Locate where your home’s main water shut off valve is. When there’s ever a leak, you can go straight there and quickly turn off the water to the entire house.
• To prevent frozen water from cracking the pipes and causing a flood, remove hoses from outdoor spigots in winter.
• To avoid frozen pipes, add pipe insulation to the plumbing in garages, basements,crawl spaces and other cold parts of your house.
• Exposed pipes should never be used as a hanger rod for laundry. Doing so can loosen joints and fasteners.
• Fix problems quickly, no matter how small they seem. Even minor leaks can make pipes corrode more quickly, and significant water damage or mold can be caused.

Plumbing Tips To Save Water

Water is a vital resource for all living organisms; it is a source of health and nutrition that makes cleaning our home and our food possible, as well as being vital for plants, your own daily consumption and for the operation of most of your appliances and equipment at home. Seeing how much we need it, it is only logical that we should do whatever is in our power to reduce its consumption and waste since it is still a scarce resource that we need to take care of to reduce our impact in the environment and be able to continue living comfortably.

Not only is saving water important for the environment, but it is also essential to reducing your bills. There are many smaller and bigger changes you can apply at home that will greatly cut down on your water usage and will quickly be reflected in your bills. You don’t have to give up your comfort or invest big amounts of money, simply follow these tips and find potential sources of waste in your home:

Install low-flow toilet and showerhead
Knowing that a regular toilet uses between 5 to 7 gallons of water with every single flush makes you really consider that a low-flow toilet should be installed in every house. It can reduce its water consumption by 30%, which will significantly lower your bills. When it comes to showerheads, one of the greatest misconceptions about the low-flow kind is that they won’t provide enough water pressure and you won’t be able to rinse properly. There are many very efficient options out in the market today that will provide a more than satisfactory shower and could reduce water usage up to 50%. Also, remember to shut the water off while you shampoo for increased savings.

Consider changing your washing machine
Washing machines use up many liters of water, especially older models. Consider changing your old top loader for a four-star rating front loader that could reduce water usage to up to 50%. When you do your laundry, it is best to wait until you can fill up the washing machine instead of doing several small loads, and to regularly check the hoses and piping for leaks or cracks that could be wasting water.

Partially fill bath instead of taking a quick shower
Showers and baths are two of the activities that use up most of your water, and many gallons of water are wasted due to long showers and big bathtubs. If you prefer baths, you will have to get used to a nice one-quarter filled bathtub to save many liters of water, or if you prefer showers, try to keep them under 10 minutes.

Repair leaky faucets and pipes
Another very important reason why your bills might be higher, even if you haven’t changed your habits, could be due to leaks in your pipes or dripping faucets. It has been said that a slow dripping pipe or faucet could waste up to 20,000 liters of water a year. Look for signs of water damage around your walls or ceiling to find hidden plumbing leaks, and inspect visible pipes, and outdoor and indoor faucets for cracks or corrosion. Fix any damage as soon as possible to reduce the chance of further problems in your home.

Fix running toilets
Just like with leaky faucets and pipes, running toilets waste thousands of liters of water, up to 800 liters a day! Toilets wear down as time goes by, so it might be time to replace certain components, like the flapper, which tend to be the ones to blame for running toilets. Purchase these inexpensive replacements and fix your toilet as soon as possible to reduce water waste.

Avoid unnecessary flushing
When it comes to toilets, the less you can flush them, the better. A lot of people have the bad habit of throwing cigarette butts, dental floss, hair, cotton and other garbage down the toilet, and therefore flush it down time and time again, wasting 5 to 7 gallons of water per flush. Instead, have a bathroom trashcan available to throw away toilet paper and any other object.

Add a plastic bottle in your toilet tank
A cheap and simple trick that you can apply at home to reduce the amount of water your toilet uses is to put water bottles or bricks inside the toilet tank. Simply fill one or two plastic bottles with sand or pebbles and water, and close them tightly. Then, place them inside the toilet tank, and you could be saving up to 10 gallons of water per day. Make sure there is enough water left to properly flush the toilet or you might have to flush twice and not really end up saving much.

Insulate your water pipes
One important factor to consider is to purchase inexpensive insulation sleeves for your hot water pipes, which are very easy to install and will not only protect them from freezing over during the winter, but will also ensure the heat stays inside the pipes and you have to wait less for warm water to reach your shower or sink, and therefore, reduce the amount of wasted water.

Practice conscious bathroom and kitchen water-usage habits
When we say bathroom and kitchen habits, we refer to all those activities you do every day that, with some small changes, will later reflect on your reduced bills. The key to proper bathroom and kitchen water-usage habits will always be to use water only when it is absolutely necessary. We mentioned adequate flushing and showering habits before, but it is also important to remember not to leave the water running when we are brushing our teeth, and also to fill up the sink with warm water instead of leaving the tap running when shaving. The same goes for our activities in the kitchen – don’t leave the water running while washing the dishes or cleaning fruit and vegetables. Opt for filling up your sink with soapy water and a bucket with clear water to wash your dishes more efficiently, and also filling up pan of clear water to rinse fruit and vegetables in.

We are all responsible for our water-usage patterns at home, and we should always strive to teach our children to adopt good habits to save water from an early age. It is essential to instruct and share good water practices with your entire family to get them on board of your water-reduction plan. If you want to make significant changes in your bills and your impact to the environment, follow these tips and we can assure you will notice a huge difference and will have extra money to destine to better use.

What is Hydro Jetting?

The sewer line in your house probably has years of accumulated sludge before it becomes completely blocked. Soap, grease, hair and residue lay down in the interior of pipes over time. As the sludge builds on itself, the diameter of the interior of the pipe narrows and becomes more restricted, and therefore more likely to catch even the smallest particle or object flowing through it. The conditions that lead to a clog are not as visible, yet the symptoms of a sewer line blockage make themselves obvious – showers that will not drain, sinks that back up. Eventually, it is completely obstructed, and sewage and waste water is no longer flowing freely to your septic or municipal sewage system. Tree roots attacking the sewer line in the yard are another frequent cause of sewer backups.

In the past, the only option besides opening the pipe was an old-fashioned drain snake, which clears the line by punching a hole through the obstruction, which doesn’t address the source of the problem or prevent it from happening again, or using corrosive chemicals, both of which can be damaging to older pipes.

Hydro jetting is a newer method of dealing with sewer problems. It is a solution that’s best when clogs can’t be removed using a plumbing snake, such as heavy sludge and grease that has built up over time, or tree roots.

It consists of a high-pressure hose with a specialized nozzle connected to a machine that pressurizes the water, producing a powerful stream that clears the drain. It is used to remove or clear away the most stubborn blockage that a typical snake or rooter is no able to. It is usually done through a cleanout, which is an opening that allows plumbers to clean out clogs. A hydro jet, doesn’t just break up clogs, it clears your plumbing lines of material that builds up on pipe walls, such as minerals and grease. It can clear almost any clog.

The water is forced down the drain, where it pushes grease, mineral build-up, hair and other debris through the drain. Unlike rooting or cabling, this state of the art machinery is designed to blast away build up residing in the pipelines. Using up to 3,800 water pounds per square inch (PSI) at 15-18 gallons per minute it pressure washes the pipe thoroughly clearing away any obstruction, allowing larger pathway for the water to flow.

Hydro jetting is not an option for a do-it-yourselfer. If your pipes are damaged or weak, a hydro jet may cause more damage, so it is a process that should be done by a professional to avoid damaging your plumbing. The high pressure could damage lines if they are not properly inspected first. Before using a hydro jet, a plumber typically inspects the drain with a small camera to determine if the cause and location of the problem. In addition, a video inspection can reduce the possibility of sewage back flushing into other areas. If tree roots are a problem, the high pressure should cut through them.

For residential work, hydro jetting can remove sand, silt and scale build up as well as hair clogs and other residues that build up on the walls of the pipes. If you need to have your plumbing snaked on a regular basis a hydro jetting service will eliminate all the debris in the lines. Other methods and chemical cleaners may not flush the system completely. On the other hand hydro jetting is environmentally friendly, no harsh chemicals are needed and it doesn’t just break up clogs, it clears the system.

How to Determine Local Water Quality

Local Water Quality

Water quality refers to the physical, chemical and biological conditions under which water is in its natural state or after being altered by human action. The concept of water quality has been associated with the use of water for human consumption, on condition that water quality means that it can be used harmlessly. However, depending on other uses, water quality can determined for such uses.

In this context, it is considered that water is of good quality when it is exempt from substances and microorganisms that are dangerous for consumers and exempt from substances that transmit unpleasant sensory sensations for consumption, such as color, odor, taste or turbidity.

To determine the need for treatment and the precise technology treatment, specific contaminants in water must be identified and measured. Water contaminants can be divided into two groups: dissolved contaminants and suspended solids. Suspended solids, such as silt, sand and viruses, are usually responsible for visible impurities. Suspended matter consists of very small particles, which cannot be removed by means of deposition. They can be identified with the description of visible characteristics of water, including turbidity and clarity, taste, color and odor.

  • Suspended matter in the water absorbs light, causing the water to have a cloudy appearance. This is called turbidity. Turbidity can be measured by several different techniques; it shows resistance to light transmission in water.
  • The sense of taste can detect concentrations of a few tens to several hundreds of PPM and taste may indicate that contaminants are present, but it can’t identify specific contaminants.
  • Color may suggest that organic impurities are present. In some cases the color of the water can be caused even by metal ions. The color is measured by comparison of different samples visually or with a spectrophotometer. This is a device that measures the transmission of light in a substance, to calculate concentrations of certain contaminants. When water has an unusual color this usually does not mean a concern for health.
  • Odour detection can be useful, because smelling can usually detect even low levels of contaminants. However, in most countries detecting contaminants by smell is limited to strict regulations; it can be a health hazard when some dangerous contaminants are present in a sample.

The total amount of suspended matter can be measured by filtering samples through a membrane and drying and weighing the residue. The suspended matter is expressed in ppm (parts per million), usually mg / l.

The identification and quantification of dissolved contaminants is done by means of very specific methods in laboratories, because these are contaminants that are associated with health risks.

Which Quantitative Analyses Define Water Quality?

Water quality can also be determined by a number of quantitative analysis in the laboratory, such as pH, total solids (TS), the conductivity and microbial contamination.

The pH is the value that determines whether a substance is acidic, neutral or basic, calculated according to the present number of hydrogen ions. It is measured on a scale from 0 to 14, in which in the middle, seven substance is neutral. pH values ​​below 7 indicate that a substance is acidic and pH values ​​above 7 indicates that it is basic. When a substance is neutral the number of hydrogen atoms and hydroxyls is equal. When the number of hydrogen atoms (H +) atoms exceeds the number of hydroxyl (OH-), the substance is acidic.

The pH level has an effect on many stages of water treatment and affects crusting of water sources. The pH level can be determined by various analytical methods such as color indicators, pH-paper or pH meters.

The total solids (TS) is the sum of all dissolved and suspended solids in the water. When water is analysed for ST sample is dried and after that the residue weighed. ST can be organic or inorganic substances, microorganisms, as well as larger particles like sand and clay.

The conductivity means the driving of energy through the ions. The measure of water conductivity can provide a clear view of the ion concentration in the water, because water is naturally resistant to conduction of energy. Conductivity is expressed in Siemens and it is measured with a conductivity meter or a cell.

Microbial contamination is divided into contamination by organisms that have the ability to reproduce and multiply and organisms that cannot. Microbial contamination can be contamination by bacteria, which is expressed as Colony Forming Units (CFU), a measure of the bacterial population. Another microbial contamination is contamination by pirogen. Pirogenes are bacterial products that can induce fever in warm-blooded animals. After Pirogen and bacteria water can also be contaminated by the virus.

The analysis can also be made by measurements of the total organic carbon (TOC) and biological and chemical oxygen demand. BOD is a measure of organic matter in the water, expressed in mg/I. It is the amount of dissolved oxygen required for the decomposition of organic matter. The BOD test takes five days. COD is a measure of the organic and inorganic matter in the water, expressed in mg / l, it is the amount of dissolved oxygen required for full chemical oxidation of contaminants.

If you’re on a public or municipal water line in the United States, call your local water supplier, whose number is on your water bill. By law, the supplier must test its processed water regularly and provide you with a copy of the results, called a Consumer Confidence Report, annually as well as on demand.

Many water agencies across the country now make their annual water quality reports available online. You can access these reports on the Environmental Protection Agency‘s Web site.

Health Effects of Chlorine in Water

Chlorine in Water

Chlorine is a natural element; its symbol is Cl, and 17 is the atomic number that identifies it on the periodic table. It is a dangerous toxin that has many uses, from disinfecting and bleaching.

In small amounts, like liquid and gas forms can be poisonous. In its gaseous form, chlorine has a pale green color and strong smell that affects breathing system in humans. In its solid form, it has a greenish yellow color. It is abundant in nature as chlorine ion, found in a lot of quantities in the salt of the earth. Many animals, including humans, need chlorine.

After decades using chlorine, epidemiological studies in populations consuming water treated with chlorine have been unable to establish a direct causal relationship to any disease, including cancer. This conclusion has been recognized by the World Health Organization. In 1990, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), part of the World Health Organization, assessed all studies on the potential risk of potable water through chlorination and determined that chlorine cannot be classified as carcinogenic .

But, there is a limit to what we can physically tolerate. Even taking a long bath increases the risk that a person has to chlorine exposure because the chemical can enter the body through skin absorption or through the eyes, nose and ears.

If the recommended values for water treatment with chlorine are respected, it won’t be any reasons for an adverse health reaction to occur. According to a field survey, chlorine is a substance in disuse for cleaning pools. There are alternative methods that can be used to keep pools disinfected, including silver and copper ions generators.

It is very difficult to determine the level of toxicity. Chlorine has been used for a long time to disinfect our drinking water; it controls the growth of harmful bacteria such as Giardia lamblia and E.coli. Care should be taken when bathing or drinking water.

There are several parameters involved in the effects it can have on people:

• Its concentration in the breathing atmosphere,

• Time exposure,

• Personal reaction, which varies with age and physical condition of each person’s  resistance.

3 ways of chlorine Common exposure:

• Skin absorption from the water and air

• Drinking and eating

• Breathing fumaroles that chlorine can create

It is important to know that the hazards of chorine exposure also have an effect on people who do not swim, but those who choose to sit by the pool to lie in the sun and relax. In some cases, non- swimmers have been tested positive for high levels of trichloramine. Trichloramine is released when chlorinated water have a reaction with organic elements, such as sweat or urine. These initiate a biological process that destroys the cell walls around the lungs. This means, that people should be more aware of some of the seemingly harmless dangers that are commonly exposed.

Health Effects of Chlorine

Studies have shown that exposure to chlorine for long periods of time can produce free radicals in the body. Free radicals are carcinogenic and cause tremendous damage to our cells.

The risk of developing cancer is 93% higher in people who drink or are exposed to chlorinated water. Chlorine can cause potential health damage to children and adults, and is a matter that should be carefully considered.

Children exposed to large amounts of chlorine can potentially suffer asthma attacks. A study, showed that rats exposed to chlorine and chloramines, developed tumors in their kidneys and intestines.

Chlorine cause irritation in the mucous membranes of eyes, nose and throat, which can develop to produce an intense, burning pain. This irritation is also evident in the respiratory tract and chest, triggering a severe cough. This is often associated with chest pain that could cause vomiting blood, as a result of mucosal lesions. Other common symptoms include headaches, malaise, anxiety and a feeling of suffocation.

Chlorine can severely irritate and even burn the skin that is directly exposed to this substance. It can have and irritating and burning effect in eyes and throat.

This product usually have a reaction with organic fluids producing acids, and, at high concentrations, it acts as stifling causing spasms in the larynx muscles and swelling of mucous membranes.

Also, acne is common among individuals exposed for a long time to low concentrations of chlorine, and it is commonly known as chloracne. Furthermore professional swimmers have also presented symptoms compatible with dental enamel erosion caused by inadequately maintained gas-chlorinated swimming pools. 

How to remove chlorine in water

Consider a water purification system for your home. It will eliminate toxins before using water for cooking, cleaning and bathing.

When exposed to chlorine, you should clean your body immediately. Use organic or all-natural soaps and detergents, they are highly recommended for your skin. There are many available types of soap that are nontoxic.

Always drink filtered water. And it is even better if you consume purified and oxygenated water to provide more oxygen to your body.

Health Effects of Lead in Water

Lead is a toxic metal present naturally in the earth’s crust. It is a soft material resistant to corrosion. Its widespread use has resulted in many parts of the world to a major pollution of the environment, a significant level of human exposure and serious public health problems.

The main sources of pollution include mining, metallurgy, manufacturing and recycling activities and, in some countries, the persistent use of leaded paints and petrol. More than three quarters parts of the world consumption of lead correspond to the production of lead-acid batteries for motor vehicles.

Lead is a metal that was used in the past as a material in roofs and leaded glass polluting the environment, air, soil, food and water. In plumbing it has been used, as early as the times of Rome, by many civilizations to transport water. Until the 70s, it was common to use lead pipes inside houses and connections service lines that carried water from public water systems to homes. Later, iron and copper pipes replaced the lead in most residential areas. Lead enters drinking water as a result of corrosion or when materials containing lead in the pipe or the water distribution system of the house are spent.

Lead can be found in other places in your home; such as loose material in the grid tap, waste materials in new homes pipe or, pipes that have been recently renovated, faucets and brass fixtures containing lead on its alloy, and lead solder to join two pieces of pipe. Lead solder is gray and when it is scratched or scraped with a key takes a bright color. Also the irrigation line may contain water polluted with lead, therefore determine whether the line connecting the plumbing in your house or apartment with the main pipe is made of lead. On the other hand, the electrical system underground cables that are attached to the pipe can cause increased corrosion affecting drinking water.

When water stagnates for several hours in lead pipes or pipe system containing lead, it can be dissolved in drinking water. This means that when you open the faucet in the morning or water that has not been moving for an extended period of time used, can accumulate high levels of lead. If your water is soft or corrosive, this type of water can accelerate the leaching of lead and copper and other metals from your household plumbing and water fixtures. The signs of this type of problem would include: greenish rings (copper) around basins, metallic or bitter taste to your water especially in the mornings, and frequent leaks/ evidence of corrosion of you household plumbing.

Lead accumulates in the body until it reaches toxic levels. It is absorbed through the digestive system, lungs and skin. Once inside the body, lead is carried by the blood throughout the body and reaches the bones, brain, liver, kidneys and teeth. It is then collected over time, and for many years before being exposed. The effects of lead poisoning depend on how much lead your system has accumulated. Adults can suffer several health problems, such are: reproductive problems and complications with pregnancy, incensement in the risk of hypertension and renal injury, digestive problems, nerve disorders, memory and concentration difficulties, muscle and joint pain, anaemia, immunotoxicity.

Lead stored in the bones can be recirculated through the blood during pregnancy, with the consequent risk to the fetus. In pregnant women, exposure to high lead levels can cause a natural abortion, stillbirth, premature delivery and low birth weight, and cause minor birth defects.

The young children are especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead, because, depending on the source of contamination, their bodies can absorb an amount of lead between 4 and 5 times higher than adults; and can have serious and permanent health consequences, affecting in particular the development of the brain and nervous system. Not only does lead poisoning stunt a child’s growth, damage the nervous system, and cause learning disabilities, but it is now Also linked to crime and anti-social behavior in children.

No level of lead concentration in blood can be considered without risk. It has been confirmed, however, that the higher level of exposure to lead, more diversity and increased severity of symptoms and effects associated therewith.

Drinking water is only one of the possible routes of exposure to lead contamination, but it is one of the easiest routes of contamination to reduce. If you suspect that your water contains lead, it needs to be analyzed.

Health effects of ingesting fluoride

Fluoride Facts

Fluoride is a natural component of the earth’s crust and soil. Water, air, plants and animals contain small amounts of fluorides. You can be exposed to small amounts of it by breathing air, drinking water or eating food. Fluorides are binary compounds or salts of fluorine and another element. An example is sodium fluoride, which is often added to drinking water supplies and a variety of dental products such as toothpastes and mouth rinses, to prevent dental cavities. Other fluorides that are commonly used to fluoridate water are fluorosilicic acid and sodium fluorosilicate.

Fluorides are also found naturally in rocks on the ground, coal and clay in the earth’s crust. And it is released into the air in wind-blown dust.

Fluorides are associated with several elements present in the water, mainly aluminum in freshwater and calcium and magnesium in sea water, when left in the sediment; it adheres strongly to sediment particles. When deposited on the ground, fluorides form strong bounds with soil components, since they are retained in it . As water flows through the soil, it removes only a small amount of fluorides soil. Fluoride can be stored and accumulated by plants or may be collected in powder form in the upper parts of plants.

Fluorides are also added to drinking water supplies at a concentration of about 1 part of fluoride per a million parts of water, and toothpastes and mouthwashes to prevent the formation of dental caries. The analytical methods used by scientists to determine the levels of fluoride in the environment, usually do not determine the specific form of fluoride which is present. Therefore, It is improbable to know what forms of fluoride are present at hazardous waste sites. Some forms of fluoride may be insoluble or could be tightly attached to particles or embedded in minerals that are not taken up by plants or animals.

In many places fluoride is added to water; the recommended level of fluoride is around 1 ppm. In the United States, approximately 15,000 water systems serving about 162 million people containing optimal fluoride levels between 0.7 and 1.2 ppm, either by natural conditions or by artificial settings. Average levels of fluoride in surface water are about 0.2 parts of fluoride per million parts of water. Levels of fluorides in well water generally range from 0.02 to 1.5 ppm, but often exceed 1.5 ppm in areas of the southwestern United States.

The average daily adult intake of fluoride through food and water is about 1 milligram (1 mg) if you live in a community with less than 0.7 ppm fluoride in the water and about 2.7 mg if you drink fluoridated water. To determine the level of fluoride in your drinking water, you can contact your local water supplier or consult the Annual Report of Consumer Confidence, which provide operators of its water system.

Your age and health status affect what happens to fluoride once inside your body. However, the amount that enters the bloodstream depends on factors such as the concentration of fluoride you swallowed, the amount of fluoride that is dissolved in water, if you recently ate or drank something and what they ate or drank. About half of fluoride ingested leaves the body to be quickly eliminated through the urine, usually within 24 hours, unless large amounts (20 mg or more, corresponding to the amount present in 20 liters or ingest over fluoridated water) although some is stored in bones and teeth.

Fluorine and hydrogen fluoride are very irritating to skin, eyes and respiratory tract. At high levels, as might occur in an industrial accident, hydrogen fluoride can also damage the heart.

Small amounts of fluoride help prevent tooth decay, but high amounts can harm your health. Eating or drinking too much fluoride during the period in which the teeth are formed (before 8 years) may cause visible changes in teeth. This condition is called dental fluorosis. At higher concentrations, fluoride may increase the fragility of the teeth and sometimes cause them to break. In adults, exposure to high levels of fluoride may increase bone density. However, if the exposure is high enough, these bones can become weak and brittle and fracture risk may be higher. In animals, exposure to extremely high doses of fluoride can result in decreased fertility and sperm and testes damage. The thyroid, which regulates the body’s metabolic rate, is extremely important in overall human health. Chemicals like fluoride can cause thyroid disruption, and can especially cause the thyroid to under-perform (hypothyroidism).

Most human studies living in areas with fluoridated water or water with high fluoride levels typically have not found an association between fluoride and cancer risk. Two animal cancer studies were inconclusive. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, for its acronym in English) has determined that fluoride is not classifiable as to carcinogenicity to humans.

There are tests to measure fluoride levels in urine; these tests can determine if you have been exposed to fluoride levels above normal. The urine test must be done shortly after exposure because fluoride that is not retained in the bones leaves the body within a few days. This test cannot be performed in the doctor’s office, but can be done in most laboratories that evaluate chemical exposure. The urine test for fluoride cannot be used to predict the nature or severity of toxic effects. In special cases, you can perform tests to measure bone prolonged exposure to fluorides.

Not only adding fluoride increases environmental chemical pollution and increase residents’ risks of dental fluorosis and other health concerns, it will also raise monthly water bills since adding these industrial waste chemicals costs millions of dollars.

What is Hard Water?

What Is Hard Water?

Water Hardness is  the concentration of mineral compounds that exist in a given amount of water.  It is a measure of the quantity of divalent ions (for this discussion, salts with two positive charges) such as calcium, magnesium and/or iron in water.  There are many different divalent salts; however, calcium and magnesium are the most common sources of water hardness. Water referred to as “hard” commonly has a high concentration of such salts and the “soft” water contains very little of them.

Hardness is traditionally measured by chemical titration.  The hardness of a water sample is reported in milligrams per liter (same as parts per million, ppm) as calcium carbonate (mg/l CaCO3). The unit of measurement of the hardness that is used most commonly are hydrometric French degrees (° HF), and the calculation of this parameter corresponds to the following formula:

(mg/l ca x 2.5 + mg/l mg x 4.2) / 10

How Is Hard Water Generated?

The presence of calcium and magnesium salts in water depends mainly on geological formations water has to pass through prior to its collecting. Groundwater which cross carbonate (limestone) aquifers are those with higher hardness; these aquifers are composed of calcium and magnesium carbonates.

Groundwater from aquifers of eminently silicate composition, for example granite, contribute to soft water, this means, water with very low amounts of calcium and magnesium salts.

Understanding Hard Water

A very visible impact in the waters of different hardness -“hard water” and “soft water”- is their different behaviour to the addition of soap. In the incidence of the same amount of soap, foaming is smaller in the case of “hard” water, because calcium and magnesium react with the compounds which form soap and stop working, with the consequent need to add more amount of soap.

The best known effect in places where the water supply has a high hardness is the lime scale formation, commonly referred to as lime.

It is important to know the hardness of the water supply in your town, since this figure allows us to adjust the operation of certain appliances that offer this possibility (particularly washing machines and dishwashers). This prior regulation to the electronic appliances allows changes in the operation thereof it depending on the set value and thus the negative effects that high water hardness may cause, resulting in better performance and longer duration of the machines.

It represents a series of fouling problems in industrial and domestic equipment

Classification of Water Hardness (H ° F):

– <7: very soft water

– 7-14: soft water

– 14-32: intermediate water hardness

– 32-54: hard water

-> 54: very hard water

Is Hard Water Covered By Law for Drinking Water?

There has not been set a limit for this parameter as the World Health Organization determined that whether the water hardness is high or low, these values ​​don’t have a toxic effect on the health of people.

There is some evidence of lower cardiovascular disease rates associated with hard water areas than in areas where the water supply is soft.

An adequate daily intake of calcium is essential for normal growth and health. Foods such as dairy products, beans, eggs, nuts, cauliflower and spinach contain calcium.


Sewer Repairs

Your sewer main is the primary sewer line that connects your home to the city sewer line. If a sewer main is damaged, it needs to be repaired or replaced as soon as possible.  Unfortunately, this usually ends up being considerably expensive. Here is some information to help you determine whether or not you need or should have sewage repair.  Also presented is information that will give you an idea of what is involved in sewer repair.


  • How long a sewer line will last depends on various factors that affect its integrity.  Nevertheless, if your sewer is 50 years or older, it may need replacing. Even if your home is new, the plumbing might be connected to an older pipe, and that older pipe might end up needing repair. To determine what’s wrong with your sewer line, a professional may opt to send a camera down the piping. This will increase the price for sewer main repair but can ultimately save in the long run. By determining the correct problem, it will cut down on unnecessary repair or replacement.


  • The main sewer line is entirely underground, often below gardens, patios, lawns, streets, or driveways. This is why sewer line repair is so expensive. You must first have a professional locate the main sewer line, and then you will need to excavate your your property to even access the sewer main. For example, you may have to jackhammer your driveway or tear up your lawn.

Repair & Replacement

  • Often the repair needed is not the most expensive part of the process at all. The actual repair may be just the replacement of a length of pipe or the removal of overgrown tree roots. It is the excavation, listed above, that is usually the costly part of the equation.

Types of Repair

  • Trenchless Sewer Repair. Traditional sewer repair requires digging a trench, but more and more people prefer to use trenchless sewer repair. Traditional sewer repair requires much digging and excavation to remove and replace broken and cracked pipes. This often leads to the destruction of property, landscape, and structures. It also creates needless debris and contaminated waste, and is sometimes impossible due to ordinances and restrictions. Trenchless sewer repair is a less invasive method. It accomplishes what can be done traditionally without the need to dig or destroy and can even repair pipes underneath existing structures without exposing them. This method is also greener as it reuses pipe that is already in the ground instead of creating waste that has to be carried away.
  • CIPP Lining. CIPP (Cured-in-place-pipe) lining is a process where you install a new sewer pipeline inside of an existing one. This method keeps the repair cost cheaper by considerably reducing the amount of excavation needed. Make sure to discuss this option with your contractor before deciding upon it, as it may not be the best option for all sewer pipe repairs.


  • You will most likely need to obtain a permit from your city if you need to repair or replace your sewer line. This will ensure that everything is up to code and will prevent problems further down the line. There are even some cases where the section of the sewer that needs repair or replacement is actually on the city’s property rather than your own. In such instances, the city would be responsible for the repair and not you. Always check with a professional to see about obtaining the right permits.

What Is Hydro Jetting?

Hydro jetting is a method of cleaning clogged drains and obstructed sewage lines using highly pressurized water. A blast of high pressure is sent into the lines via hose that will usually remove blockages and build up. The water comes out of a hose at a very high psi, from 7,000 to 60,000 psi, removing dirt, grime, debris and other obstructions in the sewer lines. Hydro jetting can completely clean pipes of residual build up in ways that using a snake cannot.  Snaking out pipes only breaks up the clogs but leaves build up remaining on the interior walls. Hydro jetting is even powerful enough to cut through tree roots that may be causing blockage. Hydro jetting has the power to burst open the toughest blockages and at the same time sends water the full diameter of the pipe, flushing debris and leaving lines clear. Short of replacing your pipes, hydro jetting is the most efficient way to clear pipes of blockages without damage to the surrounding area and infrastructure. Nevertheless, hydro jetting will not solve problems with broken pipes and could cause weakened areas to break.

Hydro jetting uses heavy-duty nozzles attached to powerful hoses and high-pressure water, similar to, but more powerful than, a fire hose.  A professional plumbing contractor or licensed septic pumper should be the one to do hydro jetting. A thorough inspection should be performed to determine the location and cause of the problem.  The high pressure could damage lines if they are not properly inspected before hydro jetting. Therefore, plumbers trained in the use of the system are needed, as they know what to look for to prevent damage and thoroughly clean the sewage system.

Hydro jetting is frequently used in commercial plumbing, but it can also be beneficial to homeowners. If you need to have your plumbing snaked on a regular basis, hydro jetting will thoroughly eliminate all the debris in the lines. Hydro jetting can also improve older plumbing lines that have years of build up. It is also particularly beneficial for homeowners as it can remove sand, silt and scale build up as well as hair clogs and other residue that build up in sewage pipes. Restaurants use hydro jetting to remove grease and food particle build up. Hydro jetting is also environmentally friendly as no chemicals are needed, just water.

It is also important to note that sewage pipes are designed in a way to allow wastewater to seep into the surrounding gravel and soil where it is treated and filtered naturally. The strong force of the water from hydro jetting can cause solids to flow into the surrounding gravel, potentially plugging the line instead of cleaning it out. Hydro jetting can also damage the pipe itself.